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home:diseases:cancer [06.12.2018]
sallieq [Microbial interaction and disease]
home:diseases:cancer [12.29.2018]
sallieq [research]
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 With the recent advent of high throughput sequencing studies, we can expect additional insights into how diseases like cancer are associated with shifts in microbial communities. ​ (({{pubmed>​long:​27470177}})) With the recent advent of high throughput sequencing studies, we can expect additional insights into how diseases like cancer are associated with shifts in microbial communities. ​ (({{pubmed>​long:​27470177}}))
  
 +==== see also MPSS Discussion ====
  
 +[[https://​www.marshallprotocol.com/​forum39/​16259.html|Study shows mechanism for Microbiome to cause Cancer]]
 +
 +{{tag> ​ }}
 =====Vitamin D metabolism===== =====Vitamin D metabolism=====
  
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   * **cancer mortality** – A 2010 longitudinal study found that both high and low concentrations of plasma 25(OH)D were associated with elevated risks of overall and cancer mortality, and low concentrations are associated with cardiovascular mortality.(({{pubmed>​long:​20720256}})) ​   * **cancer mortality** – A 2010 longitudinal study found that both high and low concentrations of plasma 25(OH)D were associated with elevated risks of overall and cancer mortality, and low concentrations are associated with cardiovascular mortality.(({{pubmed>​long:​20720256}})) ​
  
-<​html>​ + 
-<!--+ 
 +==== Are There Concerns About Over-supplementing with Vitamin D? ==== 
 + 
 +There is a common misconception that vitamin D supplementation is safe at any reasonable level, or that if some is good, more may be better. 
 + 
 +  * It is clear that vitamin D intakes and serum 25(OH)D must be very high—perhaps 200-400 ng/mL—to cause the classic toxicity of marked hypercalcemia and kidney and liver damage. 
 +  *  
 +  * However, emerging observational data suggest that adverse outcomes may occur at much lower levels, such as in the 50-75 ng/mL range. These suspected adverse outcomes appear to include increases in all-cause mortality and increases in the rate of heart disease and some cancers.  
 + 
 + 
 ====1,​25-dihydroxyvitamin D ==== ====1,​25-dihydroxyvitamin D ====
  
 Mawer //et al.// reported that 1,25-D is such a sensitive indicator of the immune response that it can even be used to determine prognosis in breast cancer with bone metastasis.(({{pubmed>​long:​8989244}})) As the level of 1,25-D falls, the level of the innate immune system'​s ability to mount an immune response also falls, and the prognosis becomes less favorable. This seems to indicate that it might be possible to use the level of 1,25-D as one means of suggesting whether or not breast cancer treatment is effective if doctors know how to interpet the results. But, one should note that the patients in the above study had bone metastasis. Mawer //et al.// reported that 1,25-D is such a sensitive indicator of the immune response that it can even be used to determine prognosis in breast cancer with bone metastasis.(({{pubmed>​long:​8989244}})) As the level of 1,25-D falls, the level of the innate immune system'​s ability to mount an immune response also falls, and the prognosis becomes less favorable. This seems to indicate that it might be possible to use the level of 1,25-D as one means of suggesting whether or not breast cancer treatment is effective if doctors know how to interpet the results. But, one should note that the patients in the above study had bone metastasis.
---> + 
-</​html>​+ 
 +  
  
 ===== Single species vs. communities of microbes ===== ===== Single species vs. communities of microbes =====
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 During a normal response to infection, inflammation is created as a means for the host to combat invading pathogens. Inflammation is first initiated by the recruitment of phagocytes to the site of infection. The phagocytes recruited to the site of infection also secrete proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha),​ and chemokines that attract more phagocytes and other cells of the immune system to the site of infection to amplify the inflammatory response. These cells respond through physiological processes mediated by the cellular enzymes NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase,​ and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). ​ During a normal response to infection, inflammation is created as a means for the host to combat invading pathogens. Inflammation is first initiated by the recruitment of phagocytes to the site of infection. The phagocytes recruited to the site of infection also secrete proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha),​ and chemokines that attract more phagocytes and other cells of the immune system to the site of infection to amplify the inflammatory response. These cells respond through physiological processes mediated by the cellular enzymes NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase,​ and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). ​
  
-The result is the release of reactive oxygen and nitrogen oxide species (ROS and RNOS) to kill potential pathogens. The free radicals and secondary products derived from them, such as secondary amines, HNO2, N2O3, and peroxynitrite,​ may damage DNA, proteins, and cell membranes and indirectly induce cell repair. Areas of tissue injury and inflammation trigger regenerative cell division from tissue and marrow-derived stem cells. Increased cell division may lead to point mutations, deletions, or translocations as damaged DNA escapes the repair system; the aberrant DNA is then propagated by subsequent cell division. This can result in disordered cell differentiation and, ultimately, oncogenesis. Hence, chronic inflammation,​ caused by microbes, instigates a cycle of cell damage, repair, and compensatory proliferation that promotes the development of cancer cells.(({{pubmed>​long:​21088404}}))+The result is the release of reactive oxygen and nitrogen oxide species (ROS and RNOS) to kill potential pathogens. The free radicals and secondary products derived from them, such as secondary amines, HNO2, N2O3, and peroxynitrite,​ may damage DNA, proteins, and cell membranes and indirectly induce cell repair. Areas of tissue injury and inflammation trigger regenerative cell division from tissue and marrow-derived stem cells. Increased cell division may lead to point mutations, deletions, or translocations as damaged DNA escapes the repair system; the aberrant DNA is then propagated by subsequent cell division. This can result in disordered cell differentiation and, ultimately, oncogenesis. Hence, chronic inflammation,​ caused by microbes, instigates a cycle of cell damage, repair, and compensatory proliferation that promotes the development of cancer cells
 + 
 +<​blockquote>​ 
 +Advanced stage follicular lymphoma (FL) is incurable by conventional therapies.(({{pubmed>​long: ​   ​25293773}}))</​blockquote>​
  
  
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 According to some sporadic reports, cancer regresses following spontaneous bacterial infection.(({{pubmed>​long:​15663328}})) Competition between an ever-changing mix of microbes, and the variable attention the immune system pays to any one component of that mix, may explain the waxing and waning of different cancerous states. ​ According to some sporadic reports, cancer regresses following spontaneous bacterial infection.(({{pubmed>​long:​15663328}})) Competition between an ever-changing mix of microbes, and the variable attention the immune system pays to any one component of that mix, may explain the waxing and waning of different cancerous states. ​
  
-Natural killer cells "are cytotoxic lymphocytes specialized in early defense against virus-infected and transformed cells."​(({{pubmed>​long:​28236750}})) ​  ​"are able to recognize and trigger cell death in tumors by detecting receptor expression abnormalities in transformed cells"​(({{pubmed>​long:​27115170}}))  ​+Natural killer cells "are cytotoxic lymphocytes specialized in early defense against virus-infected and transformed cells."​ (({{pubmed>​long:​28236750}})) ​and  ​"are able to recognize and trigger cell death in tumors by detecting receptor expression abnormalities in transformed cells"(({{pubmed>​long:​27115170}}))  ​
  
 For example, //H. pylori// can cause gastric cancer or MALT lymphoma in some individuals. In contrast, exposure to //H. pylori// appears to reduce the risk of esophageal cancer in others. //​Salmonella typhi// infection has been associated with the development of gallbladder cancer; however //S. typhi// has been associated with positive outcomes for melanoma, colon and bladder cancers.(({{pubmed>​long:​16566840}})) ​ For example, //H. pylori// can cause gastric cancer or MALT lymphoma in some individuals. In contrast, exposure to //H. pylori// appears to reduce the risk of esophageal cancer in others. //​Salmonella typhi// infection has been associated with the development of gallbladder cancer; however //S. typhi// has been associated with positive outcomes for melanoma, colon and bladder cancers.(({{pubmed>​long:​16566840}})) ​
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 {{section>:​home:​alternate:​genetic_predisposition#​cancer&​noheader&​firstseconly}} {{section>:​home:​alternate:​genetic_predisposition#​cancer&​noheader&​firstseconly}}
 +
 + <​blockquote>​These findings suggest that pro-tumorigenic entotic engulfment activity is associated with mutant p53 expression, and the two combined are a key factor in genomic instability (({{pubmed>​long:​30076358}}))</​blockquote> ​
  
  
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 Note also that the primary ARBs being evaluated, candesartan and telmisartan,​ have significantly different actions than olmesartan. According to the //in silico// emulations of Dr. Marshall, they are VDR antagonists. Note also that the primary ARBs being evaluated, candesartan and telmisartan,​ have significantly different actions than olmesartan. According to the //in silico// emulations of Dr. Marshall, they are VDR antagonists.
 +
 +==== Research ====
 +
 +<​blockquote>​analyses found no evidence that cancer risk increased with increasing duration of ARB exposure (RR increase per year=0.99)
 +
 +CONCLUSION: ​ In this large nationwide cohort, use of ARBs was not significantly associated with increased risk of incident cancer overall or of lung cancer. ​ (({{pubmed>​long:​21482967}}))</​blockquote>​
 +
 +
 +    ​
 +
  
 =====Other treatments===== =====Other treatments=====
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   * [[http://​www.reuters.com/​article/​2012/​01/​07/​us-argentina-fernandez-idUSTRE8060CB20120107|Argentina'​s Fernandez sent home, never had cancer]] – Argentine President Cristina Fernandez never had cancer despite being diagnosed with the disease last month and having her thyroid gland removed.   * [[http://​www.reuters.com/​article/​2012/​01/​07/​us-argentina-fernandez-idUSTRE8060CB20120107|Argentina'​s Fernandez sent home, never had cancer]] – Argentine President Cristina Fernandez never had cancer despite being diagnosed with the disease last month and having her thyroid gland removed.
   * [[https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​List_of_unproven_and_disproven_cancer_treatments|Wiki list of unproven & disproven treatments]]   * [[https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​List_of_unproven_and_disproven_cancer_treatments|Wiki list of unproven & disproven treatments]]
 +  * [[https://​www.amjmed.com/​article/​S0002-9343(15)00509-4/​pdf|Questions About Vitamin D for Primary Care Practice: Input From an NIH Conference]]
   * [[http://​www.foodsmatter.com/​es/​health_risks/​articles/​goldsworthy-biological-effects-04-12.pdf|biological effects]]   * [[http://​www.foodsmatter.com/​es/​health_risks/​articles/​goldsworthy-biological-effects-04-12.pdf|biological effects]]
   * [[http://​bioinitiative.org/​report/​wp-content/​uploads/​pdfs/​sec01_2012_summary_for_public.pdf|Bioinitiative Report]]   * [[http://​bioinitiative.org/​report/​wp-content/​uploads/​pdfs/​sec01_2012_summary_for_public.pdf|Bioinitiative Report]]
home/diseases/cancer.txt · Last modified: 08.03.2019 by sallieq
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