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home:diseases:cardiovascular [08.01.2019]
sallieq [More information]
home:diseases:cardiovascular [04.09.2020] (current)
sallieq [Other evidence]
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   * **Common infections predispose a person to stroke and heart attack** – In a prospective cohort study, a composite measure of //Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori//, cytomegalovirus,​ and herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 infection, were associated with a higher risk of stroke and other vascular events.(({{pubmed>​long:​19901154}})) Diarrhea as an infant (the primary cause of which is microbial infection) has been associated with later cardiovascular disease.(({{pubmed>​long:​11281409}})) Further, influenza vaccination was associated with a 50% reduction in the incidence of sudden cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and ischemic stroke. Both heart attack and stroke have their peak incidence in winter months, which correspond to the time of year when cases of influenza also peak.(({{pubmed>​long:​12573201}}))   * **Common infections predispose a person to stroke and heart attack** – In a prospective cohort study, a composite measure of //Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori//, cytomegalovirus,​ and herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 infection, were associated with a higher risk of stroke and other vascular events.(({{pubmed>​long:​19901154}})) Diarrhea as an infant (the primary cause of which is microbial infection) has been associated with later cardiovascular disease.(({{pubmed>​long:​11281409}})) Further, influenza vaccination was associated with a 50% reduction in the incidence of sudden cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and ischemic stroke. Both heart attack and stroke have their peak incidence in winter months, which correspond to the time of year when cases of influenza also peak.(({{pubmed>​long:​12573201}}))
   * **Common infections and cardiovascular diseases share the same inflammatory markers** – As Costa //et al.// have pointed out,​(({{pubmed>​long:​17686992}})) inflammatory markers that are risk factors for heart attack and stroke are also elevated during lower respiratory tract infections as well as during infections such as rheumatic fever, syphilis, diarrhea, malaria, and tuberculosis.(({{pubmed>​long:​15375259}})) (({{pubmed>​long:​5755517}})) (({{pubmed>​long:​14614368}})) (({{pubmed>​long:​12413502}}))   * **Common infections and cardiovascular diseases share the same inflammatory markers** – As Costa //et al.// have pointed out,​(({{pubmed>​long:​17686992}})) inflammatory markers that are risk factors for heart attack and stroke are also elevated during lower respiratory tract infections as well as during infections such as rheumatic fever, syphilis, diarrhea, malaria, and tuberculosis.(({{pubmed>​long:​15375259}})) (({{pubmed>​long:​5755517}})) (({{pubmed>​long:​14614368}})) (({{pubmed>​long:​12413502}}))
-  * **[[home:​pathogenesis:​evolution|evolutionary analysis]] suggests cardiovascular disease is not caused by lifestyle or genetic factors** – Atherosclerosis has been identified in Egyptian mummies.(({{pubmed>​long:​10495769}})) This suggests that whatever factors cause atherosclerosis has existed for at least several millenia. If it were true that a factor such as a harmful allele for a gene or the consumption of fatty foods caused atherosclerosis,​ the human species would have had several millenia to evolve a defense for this vulnerability to disease or, at the very least, to weed this trait out of the population.(({{pubmed>​long:​10839723}})) 
   * **prenatal exposure to influenza and cardiovascular disease** – Prenatal exposure to the 1918 influenza pandemic (Influenza A, H1N1 subtype) is associated with >/=20% excess cardiovascular disease at 60 to 82 years of age, relative to cohorts born without exposure to the influenza epidemic, either prenatally or postnatally. These findings suggest novel roles for maternal infections in the fetal programming of cardiovascular risk factors that are independent of maternal malnutrition.(({{pubmed>​long:​20198106}}))   * **prenatal exposure to influenza and cardiovascular disease** – Prenatal exposure to the 1918 influenza pandemic (Influenza A, H1N1 subtype) is associated with >/=20% excess cardiovascular disease at 60 to 82 years of age, relative to cohorts born without exposure to the influenza epidemic, either prenatally or postnatally. These findings suggest novel roles for maternal infections in the fetal programming of cardiovascular risk factors that are independent of maternal malnutrition.(({{pubmed>​long:​20198106}}))
 +  * **[[home:​pathogenesis:​evolution|evolutionary analysis]] suggests cardiovascular disease is not caused by lifestyle or genetic factors** – Atherosclerosis has been identified in Egyptian mummies.(({{pubmed>​long:​10495769}})) This suggests that whatever factors cause atherosclerosis has existed for at least several millenia. If it were true that a factor such as a harmful allele for a gene or the consumption of fatty foods caused atherosclerosis,​ the human species would have had several millenia to evolve a defense for this vulnerability to disease or, at the very least, to weed this trait out of the population.(({{pubmed>​long:​10839723}})) ​
 +
 +[[https://​www.amjmedsci.org/​article/​S0002-9629(15)30809-0/​fulltext|Infections May be Causal in the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis]]
  
 ==== A causal relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease? ==== ==== A causal relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease? ====
home/diseases/cardiovascular.1564698761.txt.gz · Last modified: 08.01.2019 by sallieq
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