Home

Psoriasis

Related article: Skin conditions

Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease that affects the skin that varies in severity from minor localized patches to complete body coverage. The richness of the skin microbiome and the emerging discrepancies between the microbial composition between health and disease point to a microbial etiology for psoriasis.

The Marshall Protocol treats psoriasis by reactivating the innate immune response. In the course of treatment, patients' disease symptoms may become worse due to a process called immunopathology.

Skin microbiome

A decade ago, Chiller et al. concluded, “The skin is a poor media for bacteria given the large number of inherent defense mechanisms.”1) This assessment was undermined seven years later by Fierer et al.’s work, which found that the average human palm harbors at least 150 bacterial species – an order of magnitude greater than previous estimates.2) A 2009 Science study expanded on this understanding of microbial diversity in skin, showing that forearms and underarms, though located just a short distance apart, are as “ecologically dissimilar as rainforests are to deserts.”3) Trillions of bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea, and small arthropods colonize the skin surface, collectively comprising the skin microbiome.4) One prominent researcher called human skin a “virtual zoo of bacteria.”5)

Novel insights are being revealed about the extent to which skin microbiotaThe bacterial community which causes chronic diseases - one which almost certainly includes multiple species and bacterial forms. affects health. For example, odors produced by skin microbiota are attractive to mosquitoes as shown by in vitroA technique of performing a given procedure in a controlled environment outside of a living organism - usually a laboratory. studies, and variation in bacterial species on the human skin may explain the variation in mosquito attraction between humans.6)

Patients with psoriasis have different populations of microbes on their skin

Evidence of infectious cause

  • cell wall deficient bacteria – In a 2009 study, Wang investigated the carriage rate of cell wall deficient bacteria in the tonsil or pharynx of psoriasis patients. Cell wall deficient bacteria, a term often used interchangeably with l-formDifficult-to-culture bacteria that lack a cell wall and are not detectable by traditional culturing processes. Sometimes referred to as cell wall deficient bacteria., were isolated from 74.2% of psoriasis patients, 23.5% of chronic tonsillitis patients and only 6.3% of controls.7)
  • differences in microbiota between psoriasis and normal skin – A 2008 study of psoriatic skin not only found 84 novel species never before known to persist in skin, but also double the proportion of microbes from the Firmicutes phylum in psoriatic patients, as compared to healthy controls.8) In contrast, Fahlén's study analyzed 10 psoriatic patients using pyrosequencing,9) finding no difference in levels of Firmicutes but confirmed lower levels of Propionibacterium. The discrepancies between these two studies illustrate the importance of focusing on the activity of microbes and as well as the competence of the immune response.
  • bacterial DNA in blood of psoriatic patients – Peripheral blood samples from 20 patients with psoriasis and from 16 control subjects were studied for the presence of bacteria by PCR using universal 16S ribosomal DNA primers and specific primers for S. pyogenes. Sequence analysis of amplified 16S rRNA sequences was used to determine taxonomic identity. Ribosomal bacterial DNA was detected in the blood of all 20 patients with psoriasis, but in none of the controls.10)

Other treatments

For many physicians, immunosuppressive medications are a first-line treatment for psoriasis. These drugs suppress the innate immune response, which provides some patients with temporary symptom palliation, because they reduce immunopathology, the bacterial die-off reaction.

  • corticosteroids – For even short periods of time, steroid use can become genuinely addictive. Research shows that any kind of short-term symptomatic improvement from corticosteroid use does not last, and that over the longer term, use of the drugs entales a litany of side effects. For their own safety, patients on the Marshall Protocol (MP) must wean off of them as opposed to discontinuing them outright.
  • TNF-alpha inhibitorsTumor necrosis factor-alphaA cytokine critical for effective immune surveillance and is required for proper proliferation and function of immune cells. or TNF-alpha is a cytokine critical for effective immune surveillance.11) TNF-alpha inhibitors, also known as TNF blockers, anti-TNF drugsDrugs which interfere with the body's production of TNF-alpha - a cytokine necessary for recovery from infection or TNF-alpha antagonists, are drugs which interfere with the body's production of TNF-alpha.12) Anti-TNF drugs are expensive, ineffective at treating chronic disease and have a number of adverse effects such as increase risk of serious infection such as mycobacterial infection.13) 14)
  • methotrexate – Methotrexate (MTX) is an antibiotic that interferes with bacteria's ability to synthesize folate. It is used to treat diseases with rapid cell growth such as cancer and some autoimmune diseases, particularly the rheumatic diseases. A superior alternative to MTX is the Marshall Protocol antibiotic, Bactrim DS.
  • light therapyPhototherapy suppresses immunity which can lead to the progression of other infections such as human papilloma virus (HPV). A 2010 study used a nested polymerase chain reaction, to analyze skin biopsies taken a from 20 psoriasis patients under phototherapy (UVB) and 20 untreated psoriatic patients. The authors were able to detect viruses in 60% of the treatment but in none of the controls.15) In reality, light therapy does nothing to resolve underlying disease state and can actually delay progress for MP patients. Certainly prolonged light exposure has been shown to increase skin melanoma – the World Health Organization now categorizes tanning beds under the highest cancer risk category.16) MP patients who have completed the treatment have been able to attest to the fact that sunshine is not necessary for good health or happiness.

Patients experiences

I've had lots of experience with psoriasis (which looks like sarc lesions, BTW). I've found a cream that helps it feel better. It's a combo of mango and shea butter that I buy at Walmart, made by Tree Hut. It's very soothing.

Reenie, MarshallProtocol.com

Patient interviews

Guss Wilkinson

sarcoidosis, psoriasis, insomnia, kidney stones

Read the interview


Interviews of patients with other diseases are also available.

Notes and comments

References

1)
Skin microflora and bacterial infections of the skin.
Chiller K, Selkin BA, Murakawa GJ
J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc6p170-4(2001 Dec)
2)
The influence of sex, handedness, and washing on the diversity of hand surface bacteria.
Fierer N, Hamady M, Lauber CL, Knight R
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A105p17994-9(2008 Nov 18)
3)
Topographical and temporal diversity of the human skin microbiome.
Grice EA, Kong HH, Conlan S, Deming CB, Davis J, Young AC, Bouffard GG, Blakesley RW, Murray PR, Green ED, Turner ML, Segre JA
Science324p1190-2(2009 May 29)
4)
Skin microbiome: looking back to move forward.
Kong HH, Segre JA
J Invest Dermatol132p933-9(2012 Mar)
5)
Molecular analysis of human forearm superficial skin bacterial biota.
Gao Z, Tseng CH, Pei Z, Blaser MJ
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A104p2927-32(2007 Feb 20)
6)
Chemical ecology of interactions between human skin microbiota and mosquitoes.
Verhulst NO, Takken W, Dicke M, Schraa G, Smallegange RC
FEMS Microbiol Ecol74p1-9(2010 Oct)
7)
Cell-wall-deficient bacteria: a major etiological factor for psoriasis?
Wang GL, Li XY, Wang MY, Xiao DG, Zhang YY, Yuan XY, Wang QY, Song JJ
Chin Med J (Engl)122p3011-6(2009 Dec 20)
8)
Substantial alterations of the cutaneous bacterial biota in psoriatic lesions.
Gao Z, Tseng CH, Strober BE, Pei Z, Blaser MJ
PLoS One3pe2719(2008 Jul 23)
9)
Comparison of bacterial microbiota in skin biopsies from normal and psoriatic skin.
Fahlén A, Engstrand L, Baker BS, Powles A, Fry L
Arch Dermatol Res304p15-22(2012 Jan)
10)
Evidence for the presence of bacteria in the blood of psoriasis patients.
Munz OH, Sela S, Baker BS, Griffiths CE, Powles AV, Fry L
Arch Dermatol Res302p495-8(2010 Sep)
11)
TNF blockade: an inflammatory issue.
Aggarwal BB, Shishodia S, Takada Y, Jackson-Bernitsas D, Ahn KS, Sethi G, Ichikawa H
Ernst Schering Res Found Workshopp161-86(2006)
14)
Anti-tumour necrosis factor agents and tuberculosis risk: mechanisms of action and clinical management.
Gardam MA, Keystone EC, Menzies R, Manners S, Skamene E, Long R, Vinh DC
Lancet Infect Dis3p148-55(2003 Mar)
15)
Comparative study of human papilloma virus in untreated and ultraviolet-treated psoriatic patients.
Salem SA, Zuel-Fakkar NM, Fathi G, Abd El-Reheem SM, Abd El-monem El-Tabakh A, Ragab DM
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed26p78-82(2010 Apr)
16)
A review of human carcinogens--part D: radiation.
El Ghissassi F, Baan R, Straif K, Grosse Y, Secretan B, Bouvard V, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Guha N, Freeman C, Galichet L, Cogliano V
Lancet Oncol10p751-2(2009 Aug)
home/diseases/psoriasis.txt · Last modified: 09.03.2012 by paulalbert
© 2015, Autoimmunity Research Foundation. All Rights Reserved.