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home:diseases:schizophrenia [02.22.2019]
sallieq [More evidence]
home:diseases:schizophrenia [01.26.2020]
sallieq [Recent research]
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   * **Prenatal infection and schizophrenia** – According to Alan S. Brown of Columbia University, "​Accumulating evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to infection contributes to the etiology of schizophrenia."​ In a 2006 study, Brown showed that prenatal infections such as rubella, influenza, and toxoplasmosis are all associated with higher incidence of schizophrenia.(({{pubmed>​long:​16469941}})) Brown found a seven-fold increased risk of schizophrenia when mothers were exposed to influenza in the first trimester of gestation. This work was echoed by a 2009 paper by Sørensen //et al.// who showed that bacterial infections (upper respiratory tract and gonococcal infections) were associated with elevated risk of the disease.(({{pubmed>​long:​18832344}}))   * **Prenatal infection and schizophrenia** – According to Alan S. Brown of Columbia University, "​Accumulating evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to infection contributes to the etiology of schizophrenia."​ In a 2006 study, Brown showed that prenatal infections such as rubella, influenza, and toxoplasmosis are all associated with higher incidence of schizophrenia.(({{pubmed>​long:​16469941}})) Brown found a seven-fold increased risk of schizophrenia when mothers were exposed to influenza in the first trimester of gestation. This work was echoed by a 2009 paper by Sørensen //et al.// who showed that bacterial infections (upper respiratory tract and gonococcal infections) were associated with elevated risk of the disease.(({{pubmed>​long:​18832344}}))
 +  * see also (({{pubmed>​long:​22488761}})),​ (({{pubmed>​long:​30068405}})),​ (({{pubmed>​long:​28463237}})),​ (({{pubmed>​long: ​   28844435}})),​ (({{pubmed>​long: ​   25464029}})) ​
  
   * **Increased suceptibility to other probable infectious diseases** - There is an increased prevalence of Sjogren'​s,​ hypothyreosis and rheumatoid arthritis in schizophrenia.(({{pubmed>​long:​9105757}})) ​   * **Increased suceptibility to other probable infectious diseases** - There is an increased prevalence of Sjogren'​s,​ hypothyreosis and rheumatoid arthritis in schizophrenia.(({{pubmed>​long:​9105757}})) ​
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 ===== Recent research ===== ===== Recent research =====
  
-[[https://​medicine.yale.edu/​news/​article.aspx?​id=19012|In the Developing Brain, Scientists Find Roots of Neuropsychiatric Diseases]]+<​blockquote>​They also found that the greatest variation in cell types and gene expression activity happen early in prenatal development,​ decrease late in pregnancy and in early childhood, and begin to increase again in early adolescence. ​[[https://​medicine.yale.edu/​news/​article.aspx?​id=19012|In the Developing Brain, Scientists Find Roots of Neuropsychiatric Diseases]] 
 +</​blockquote>​
  
-The short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, butyrate, and propionate, major metabolites derived from fermentation of dietary fibers by gut microbes, interact with multiple immune and metabolic pathways. The specific pathways that SCFA are thought to target, are dysregulated in cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and systemic inflammation. Most notably, these disorders are consistently linked to an attenuated lifespan in schizophrenia. ​ (({{pubmed>​long:​28396623}}))  ​(({{pubmed>​long:​000}}))+The short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, butyrate, and propionate, major metabolites derived from fermentation of dietary fibers by gut microbes, interact with multiple immune and metabolic pathways. The specific pathways that SCFA are thought to target, are dysregulated in cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and systemic inflammation. Most notably, these disorders are consistently linked to an attenuated lifespan in schizophrenia. ​ (({{pubmed>​long:​28396623}}))  ​
  
 <​blockquote>​ <​blockquote>​
-The short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, butyrate, and propionate, major metabolites derived from fermentation of dietary fibers by gut microbes, interact with multiple immune and metabolic pathways. The specific pathways that SCFA are thought to target, are dysregulated in cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and systemic inflammation. Most notably, these disorders are consistently linked to an attenuated lifespan in schizophrenia. ​ (({{pubmed>​long:​28396623}})) ​ (({{pubmed>​long:​000}})) +Although, the abovementioned studies demonstrate that SCFA are present in the brain and modify inflammation in a beneficial manner, administration of valproic acid, a medication commonly prescribed for symptoms associated with bipolar disorder and epilepsy, inhibits the transport of SCFA across the blood brain barrier in rodents (Adkison and Shen, 1996). In addition, in vitro studies reveal that free fatty acids in the intestine can have cytotoxic properties (Penn and Schmid-Schonbein,​ 2008). Therefore, there is still much to be learned about the compounds that modulate SCFA and the types and expression of the receptors that SCFA target. In addition, the role of SCFA in the brain and their relationship to neurobiological factors and pathways including neurotransmitter circuits, neurotrophic factors and other brain metabolites remains largely unknown. 
- +</​blockquote>​
- +
-Although, the abovementioned studies demonstrate that SCFA are present in the brain and modify inflammation in a beneficial manner, administration of valproic acid, a medication commonly prescribed for symptoms associated with bipolar disorder and epilepsy, inhibits the transport of SCFA across the blood brain barrier in rodents (Adkison and Shen, 1996). In addition, in vitro studies reveal that free fatty acids in the intestine can have cytotoxic properties (Penn and Schmid-Schonbein,​ 2008). Therefore, there is still much to be learned about the compounds that modulate SCFA and the types and expression of the receptors that SCFA target. In addition, the role of SCFA in the brain and their relationship to neurobiological factors and pathways including neurotransmitter circuits, neurotrophic factors and other brain metabolites remains largely unknown.</​blockquote>​ +
  
  
 +[[https://​pdfs.semanticscholar.org/​31c5/​bc794749e5f4dc9b9a124e51af5ef985c78d.pdf|A neurobiological hypothesis for the classification of schizophrenia:​ type A (hyperdopaminergic) and type B (normodopaminergic)]]. (({{pubmed>​long:​000}}))
 ===== Impact of cannabis use ===== ===== Impact of cannabis use =====
  
home/diseases/schizophrenia.txt · Last modified: 01.26.2020 by sallieq
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