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home:publications:marshall_chlamydia2_2009 [05.02.2011]
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 But the thing that’s really important is, for decades, chronic disease patients have been given antibiotics and have responded to the antibiotics differently from the way healthy people responded to the antibiotics. One of the reasons for that is because the postulates of Koch, from 1897, said basically, “Look, you’ve got to be able to examine the bacterium out of the body, in the lab.” But the thing that’s really important is, for decades, chronic disease patients have been given antibiotics and have responded to the antibiotics differently from the way healthy people responded to the antibiotics. One of the reasons for that is because the postulates of Koch, from 1897, said basically, “Look, you’ve got to be able to examine the bacterium out of the body, in the lab.”
  
-The moment you take it out of the body, you get rid of a whole lot of things that happen inside the cells of the human body. For example, if you take the antibiotics clindamycin,​ minocycline,​ and rifampin—-rifampin was the primary antibiotic used against tuberculosis--minocycline you know, and clindamycin you know. All of those activate a nuclear receptor in the human body call the PXR nuclear receptor, which is right at the heart of the human immune system. We’ll get to that in a future slide. So when those antibiotics are in the human body they have additional actions to what they have in a petri dish. And this is something that we were really only able to understand once we could understand the genes and how the genes interacted. And what I figured they had to be doing is knocking out gene expression by the VDR Nuclear Receptor. The VDR Nuclear Receptor—in man—is responsible for some key endogenous antimicrobials. That means, antimicrobials that are produced in the human body itself. There are 24, approximately,​ families that have been identified and about 17 of them are affected by the VDR directly or indirectly. So it’s absolutely key. In particular, the Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, the receptor TLR-2—that’s the one that’s been on the previous slides of all the other speakers as the one recognizing Chlamydia—that gets knocked out, when you knock out the VDR. You knock out out Cathelicidin and you knock out beta-defensins. At that point, the cells immune defenses have been virtually knocked out. Just by the bacteria figuring out how to to knock out that one nuclear receptor, out of the thousands and thousands of proteins that are in the human body.+The moment you take it out of the body, you get rid of a whole lot of things that happen inside the cells of the human body. For example, if you take the antibiotics clindamycin,​ minocycline,​ and rifampin—-rifampin was the primary antibiotic used against tuberculosis--minocycline you know, and clindamycin you know. All of those activate a nuclear receptor in the human body call the PXR nuclear receptor, which is right at the heart of the human immune system. We’ll get to that in a future slide. So when those antibiotics are in the human body they have additional actions to what they have in a petri dish. And this is something that we were really only able to understand once we could understand the genes and how the genes interacted. And what I figured they had to be doing is knocking out gene expression by the VDR Nuclear Receptor. The VDR Nuclear Receptor—in man—is responsible for some key endogenous antimicrobials. That means, antimicrobials that are produced in the human body itself. There are 24, approximately,​ families that have been identified and about 17 of them are affected by the VDR directly or indirectly. So it’s absolutely key. In particular, the Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, the receptor TLR-2—that’s the one that’s been on the previous slides of all the other speakers as the one recognizing Chlamydia—that gets knocked out, when you knock out the VDR. You knock out out Cathelicidin and you knock out beta-defensins. At that point, the cells' ​immune defenses have been virtually knocked out. Just by the bacteria figuring out how to to knock out that one nuclear receptor, out of the thousands and thousands of proteins that are in the human body.
  
 ==== Slide # 19: Overcoming Antibiotic Resistance ==== ==== Slide # 19: Overcoming Antibiotic Resistance ====
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