Anorexia and bulimia

Discussion in The Economist print edition 29 Sep 2005 Molecular self-loathing

Evidence of infectious cause

The intrinsic ability of bacteria to regulate their growth and to maintain their population within the gut suggests that gut bacteria can interfere with molecular pathways controlling energy balance in the host. 1)

Immune overload

Keep in mind that the stress response tends to lower immunity, and teenagers may be particularly vulnerable to stressful situations, partly due to hormonal and endocrine adjustments during maturation.

They are also likely to be exposed to a range of new microbes both in the varied classrooms of high school and when pursuing afternoon and evening activities unavailable to young children

Leading to the intriguing possibility that difficulties in navigating adolescence could result in some individuals sinking under the load of microbial influence and being branded by socio-professional ideas such as innate personality and temperament being a contributing factor, rather than an unfortunate outcome of immune overload.

An immune overload hypothesis would suggest that compensating withdrawal from some activities would help recovery from eating disorders, and certainly a reduction of unnecessary parental pressure may be needed.

New imaging technology at U.Cal. San Diego provides insight into abnormalities in the brain circuitry of patients with anorexia nervosa that may contribute to the puzzling symptoms found in people with the eating disorder.

Under Kaye's leadership, the eating disorders treatment program at UC San Diego is developing treatments based on understanding the temperament and personality that drives anorexia, and helping patients to use such traits in constructive, rather then self-defeating ways.

Patient experiences

Elijuh Thu Dec 6th, 2007 light sensitivity 7 Anorexia 3

Sat Dec 15th, 2007 Anorexia 4 lost 3 pounds in 20 days

Dec 27th, 2007 Anorexia is improving! It's kinda funny that I had it during Christmas…must have been all the relatives! Mon Jan 14th, 2008 Notice I switched from the Ultracet to Demerol. The Ultracet caused the anorexia to worsen tremendously. I am six pounds down but staying steady there. ed May 6th, 2009 20:43 I am experiencing anorexia. I don't even think about food. No appetite. I have begun setting a timer to remind me but I don't ever finish a meal. Weight is down considerably. Below 110. I am 5'5“. This seems to be worse since I went for an esophagus dilation a few weeks ago.

May 7th, 2009 I was tentatively diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa in 1981. Interestingly enough it seems to run in my family. My grandmother died of AN in February of 2006. 5'7” and 83 lbs. But when I was diagnosed with AN in 81, I obsessed about food. I didn't eat it but it consumed my thoughts. It was very inline with my OCD issues. I had rituals that surrounded my eating. With this IP, food isn't crossing my mind. I think I'll try upping the Benicar first to see if my appetite returns.

Tue Jun 9th, 2009 My Anorexia is still here and now the Anorexia Nervosa stuff with the OCD issues is rearing it's ugly head, too. upping Benicar as of right now. It hit me tonight what was going on when a friend told me that I needed to eat and I argued them down. Sigh. Just like the old days. Argue and then distract them. It took me several days to realize I was back with the OCD stuff.

Support team: You can back down the Zith, since you feel that it is causing all this, no need to hurry and xtra Benicar OR keep Zith where it is and add in Benicar 40mg/4hrs and use 20mg sublinigal (taste ugh!).

Tue Jun 7th, 2011 After 7 years of serious illness I am seeing huge improvements. … Tumors in my feet - shrinking and pain is gone. Breathing - easier and better. Swollen rib cage - gone. Headaches - gone. Tendons - FINALLY some better - not great - but better.

Vomiting - almost gone- Now down to vomiting once or twice a week. Anemia - gone. White count back in normal range. Reflux - better.

I was having to sleep really elevated to keep the stomach acid from going into my lungs. I can sleep with the bed elevation lower now. Sleep is improved. No longer on any sleep meds…except when I'm worried. …. I'm not completely well but I am getting there. I know I have more years in recovery but I can do it

So that is it. I am starting to feel normal again. I even have less of the nerve issues in my hands now. I didn't think things like that would ever go back to normal. But I can feel them normalizing. The word for me is beginning to be…NORMAL. 4.5 years on the Marshall, (was on one antibiotic protocol or another since July of 2005).

Alayne's strategy

The trick is to have as many kinds of foods around as possible because when one's appetite is down, having just one thing to choose from generally doesn't work. I went through years of having little or no appetite myself, so understand the problem pretty well myself - it's very frustrating!

Here's some of what Jack manages to choke down and hasn't lost anymore weight on:

Breakfasts - 2 slices of whole grain toast or rolls with peanut butter/almond butter with agave nectar (like honey) and high fat cheese.

Mixed whole grain hot cereals with half & half, dried or whatever kinds of fruits you have and nuts.

Smoothies - Frozen and unfrozen fruits (lots of vitamins). He also adds almonds or some softer nuts to the blenderized drink. Always add some protein to the mix as well. We like to make an eggwhite omelet to accompany the smoothie (3-5 eggwhites with garlic, grated cheese, green onions, tomatoes…or whatever else is in the fridge).

Other meals - sandwiches with guacamole and whole milk cheese or chicken or both. We also use vegenaise which is a great substitute for mayo (tastes like the real thing).

Brown rice, wild rice, basmati rice pilafs with quick cooked organic beef or lamb stew with lots of veggies and spices.

Buffalo, beef, or lamb burgers (spiced with various herbs and onion, garlic, etc.) on whole grain rolls or just with veggies.

Grill a marinated beef or buffalo steak and have on hand for snacks and meals.

Roast a chicken once or twice a week and have on hand for snacks and meals. We make a great chicken salad with the vegenaise, pickles, onions, and whatever else we like. Spread on crackers, bread, or use in salads lettuces.

Whole fat cheese on crackers (try different types of cheeses and crackers for variation)

Apples and celery with peanut butter or almond butter. Cashew butter's also great.

Jacks makes almond milk and cashew yogurt which are nice and high in calories. If you're interested, can give you the recipes. Kind of a pain to make though.

Lots of sugar free dark chocolate.

Mixed nuts (I know you're heartily sick of them…there are ways to flavor them differently so they're a tad more interesting. Although it's not known whether or not pumpkin and sunflower seeds have Vit D, Jacks eats them on many things. His 25-DThe vitamin D metabolite widely (and erroneously) considered best indicator of vitamin D "deficiency." Inactivates the Vitamin D Nuclear Receptor. Produced by hydroxylation of vitamin D3 in the liver. dropped to <5, so I think they probably have little D, if any.

Tortilla chips with salsas and guacamole.

Further Research

We found significantly altered correlations between alpha-MSH autoAb levels and the total Eating Disorder Inventory-2 score, as well as most of its subscale dimensions in AN and BN patients vs. controls. Remarkably, these correlations were opposite in AN vs. BN patients. In contrast, levels of autoAbs reacting with adrenocorticotropic hormone, OT, or VP had only few altered correlations with the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 subscale dimensions in AN and BN patients. Thus, our data reveal that core psychobehavioral abnormalities characteristic for eating disorders correlate with the levels of autoAbs against alpha-MSH, suggesting that AN and BN may be associated with autoAb-mediated dysfunctions of primarily the melanocortin system. Fetissov SO, et al2)

Hypovolemia-induced obesity and diabetes. 3) Hypovolemia is a diminished volume of circulating blood in the body. Therefore is it obviously important to guard against dehydration.

Imaging studies revealDifferences in the brain circuitry of patients with anorexia nervosa (commonly known as anorexia) that may contribute to the puzzling symptoms found in people with the eating disorder. 4)

Monitoring Bacterial Community of Human Gut MicrobiotaThe bacterial community which causes chronic diseases - one which almost certainly includes multiple species and bacterial forms. Reveals an Increase in Lactobacillus in Obese Patients and Methanogens in Anorexic Patients 5)

Famine may affect the microbiome in a lasting way6) psychological traits in eating disorders

in New Insights in Anorexia Nervosa 7) P. Gorwood, J. Epelbaum and colleagues assemble seven possible models, each accompanied by illustrative figures.

===== Notes and comments =====

https://www.marshallprotocol.com/search.php?s=1&q=+Anorexia+&forum_id=35 https://www.marshallprotocol.com/search.php?s=1&q=Bulimia&forum_id=35 ANOREXIA

HeatherZ May 31st, 2015 I think my anorexia is coming back! I am skipping so many many meals and don't like the idea of having food inside me. Its just like before. I am suppressing my desire to eat. I am just starting to lose weight. I think this is IP. 22sept'15 I had bad anorexia for a few months and it was a real struggle to stay on top of, but my apetite has now come back and is stronger than ever and I am am enjoying food like I used to when I was young

Windflowersmiles Fri Apr 11th, 2014 01:08 ( NOTE Windflower died in 2015, so i can not get her permit) I was bedridden almost completely for 1 1/2 years with very, very little activity (slept or lay in bed for days at a time, only daily activity was going from bed to couch, and to washroom, and back to bed.  Back then I would go to negligent family doctors office maybe once per month.  I was so ill I was unable to stand in the kitchen to cook an short easy meal.  If I tried I would pass out or almost collapse due to exhaustion, a combination of orthostatic hypotension, low blood sugar, and weakness due to anorexia and inactivity (I was barely eating for 1/2 years, losing 80 lbs over this time.

Bobo Tue Aug 9th, 2011 20:02 (joined mar '09) I seemed to lose control over my mind and body, could not control symptoms the same way as before, severe allergies, intolerances to food and horrible anxiety, depression, ocd, lost appetite and starved my body or had insane craving and overeating binges. I think I got a glimpse of how anorexia or bulimic people experience their disease.

Extreme moodiness, swelling, abdominal bloating, 10 kg weight gain, hard to function generally and extreme foggy thinking and suicidal with self-hurting episodes.

I actually had anxiety to post here cause it reminded me that my situation could change in a second from what I had just written.

To put it short: I think everything was related to too much light as the spring and summer came closer.

Wed Aug 10th, 2011 08:34 Oh my! it just dawned on me that YES the kitchen uses fluorescent light and also the light on the hallway is fluorescent or neon or something.

: Mon Mar 18th, 2013 06:20

luxman 9Jan2010 Anorexia: 1 (down)

Fri Sep 2nd, 2016 09:31 support team Looks like you are “cured”.

Best Report ever !

Expate 2008 re b4 MP However, reading here about the possibility of anorexia being a Th1 diseaseAny of the chronic inflammatory diseases caused by bacterial pathogens. brought to mind an experience I had about 7 years ago.  I suddenly didn’t have appetite/felt sick when I ate (though never acutely).  I have NEVER had problems with my appetite.  In fact, I have struggled with my weight throughout my life.  I love good food!  When I went through that period of a month and a half or so of no appetite, I was worried.  I wondered if that was how anorexics felt.  It was weird.  But it passed.

marion villa Feb 3rd, 2008 03:55 Although I have no arthritic pain,which is amazing , I suffer strange sensations, I have no hunger at all!!like if i had had anorexia…and mino has been tough with my stomach,

deceased shown byat name Morris W Milnes Jun 29th, 2006 I may misunderstand the definition of Anorexia, but I have absolutely no desire to be any thinner, I just am very seldom getting hungry anymore.  I am forcing myself to eat but can't quite seem to force enough to maintain, although weight loss is definitely much slower.


It is funny how your mind works.  A number of times when I wasn't feeling very bad at all I have sat here in my chair thinking “I'm gonna die soon”.  The other night when my new symptoms of the hot knife stabbing into my left lung with every breath happened and I had to lay on the floor to help aleviate the pain, I realized that this was herx, coming after each antibiotic dosage.  Then I'm laying there going “Yes!   This is working”

from Alayne

Good luck with the food and feel free to pm me for any recipes, or whatever. Alayne


(Paul and/or Amy ??) I'm not sure I can completely tease out the significance of this study, but this sort of result suggests that famine may affect the microbiome in a lasting way: psychological traits in eating disorders

Final point: IMO, we should all be careful not to define the chain of events. What if a disruption in the microbiome preceded anorexia and the anorexia “phenotype” was only expressed in certain cultures?

===== References =====

Fetissov SO. Role of the gut microbiota in host appetite control: bacterial growth to animal feeding behaviour. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2017 Jan;13(1):11-25. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2016.150. Epub 2016 Sep 12.
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Fetissov SO, Harro J, Jaanisk M, Järv A, Podar I, Allik J, Nilsson I, Sakthivel P, Lefvert AK, Hökfelt T. Autoantibodies against neuropeptides are associated with psychological traits in eating disorders. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Oct 11;102(41):14865-70. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0507204102. Epub 2005 Sep 29.
[PMID: 16195379] [PMCID: 1253594] [DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0507204102]
Fetissov SO, Thornton SN. Hypovolemia-induced obesity and diabetes. Metabolism. 2009 Nov;58(11):1678; author reply 1679. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2009.06.022. Epub 2009 Aug 25.
[PMID: 19709692] [DOI: 10.1016/j.metabol.2009.06.022]
Kaye WH, Wagner A, Fudge JL, Paulus M. Neurocircuity of eating disorders. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2011;6:37-57. doi: 10.1007/7854_2010_85.
[PMID: 21243469] [PMCID: 5957512] [DOI: 10.1007/7854_2010_85]
Armougom F, Henry M, Vialettes B, Raccah D, Raoult D. Monitoring bacterial community of human gut microbiota reveals an increase in Lactobacillus in obese patients and Methanogens in anorexic patients. PLoS One. 2009 Sep 23;4(9):e7125. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007125.
[PMID: 19774074] [PMCID: 2742902] [DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007125]
Elias SG, Keinan-Boker L, Peeters PHM, Van Gils CH, Kaaks R, Grobbee DE, Van Noord PAH. Long term consequences of the 1944-1945 Dutch famine on the insulin-like growth factor axis. Int J Cancer. 2004 Feb 10;108(4):628-30. doi: 10.1002/ijc.11584.
[PMID: 14696131] [DOI: 10.1002/ijc.11584]
Gorwood P, Blanchet-Collet C, Chartrel N, Duclos J, Dechelotte P, Hanachi M, Fetissov S, Godart N, Melchior J, Ramoz N, Rovere-Jovene C, Tolle V, Viltart O, Epelbaum J. New Insights in Anorexia Nervosa. Front Neurosci. 2016 Jun 29;10:256. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2016.00256. eCollection 2016.
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