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Co-infections

Related article: Microbes in the human body

A variety of bacteria, fungi, and viruses are commonly described as co-infections. These include: Bartonella, cytomegalovirus, Borellia, Babesia, Candida, Ehrlicha, Epstein-Barr virus, and Rickettsia. In the absence of a robust immune response, these microbes along with others proliferate inside the human body.

Because the Marshall Protocol activates the innate immune response, a system that is responsive to a range of microbes, there is a good chance the MP targets these infections. Patients on the MP experience an immunopathological reaction in eliminating any microbes including those labelled as co-infections.

Frequently cited types

  • Bartonella – A genus of Gram-negative bacteria. Facultative intracellular parasites, Bartonella species can infect healthy people but are considered especially important as opportunistic pathogens.
  • Borellia
  • BabesiaBabesia is a protozoan parasite of the blood that causes a hemolytic disease known as Babesiosis. There are over 100 species of Babesia identified.
  • Cytomegalovirus – A viral genus of the viral group known as Herpesviridae or herpesviruses. It is typically abbreviated as CMV. The species that infects humans it is commonly known as human CMV (HCMV) or human herpesvirus-5 (HHV-5), and is the best studied of all cytomegaloviruses.
  • Ehrlicha – A genus of rickettsiales bacteria typically transmitted by ticks.
  • Epstein-Barr virus
  • Rickettsia – A genus of non-motile, Gram-negative, non-sporeforming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can present as cocci (0.1 μm in diameter), rods (1–4 μm long) or thread-like (10 μm long).

Candida albicans

Related article: Antifungal agents

Candida albicans is a fungus (a form of yeast) that plays a role in opportunistic oral and genital infections in humans. C. albicans biofilms A structured community of microorganisms encapsulated within a self-developed protective matrix and living together. readily form on the surface of implantable medical devices. Systemic fungal infections (fungemias) have emerged as important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients traditionally labelled as immunocompromised, e.g., AIDS, cancer chemotherapy, organ or bone marrow transplantation. (According to the Marshall Pathogenesis, patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases are likewise immunocompromised.)

As the section devoted to antimicrobial peptides (AmPs) explains, the AmP cathelicidin is a component of the innate immune system, and is responsive to fungi.1)

Antifungal agents such as fluconazole (Diflucan) are sometimes prescribed to treat fungal infections. While some patients have reported feeling better after taking antifungal agents, antifungals interfere with immune function.

At least according to one study, patients are a poor judge of whether they have fungal infections.

Patient symptom scores were a poor predictor of yeast infections based on yeast culture results. … Self-reported symptoms are not reliable for diagnosis.

Susan Hoffstetter et al. 2)

Term can be ambiguous

In parasitology, a coinfection is defined as the simultaneous infection of a host by multiple pathogens with one pathogen being the primary disease-causing agent. The term is something of a legacy of Koch's postulates in which infectious diseases are only caused by a single species of microbe.

According to the Marshall Pathogenesis, however, pointing to a single microbe as being the cause of disease and the rest as largely ancillary does not adequately represent the complexity of successive infection and the role that many microbes, combined, may have in causing disease. Even Epstein-Barr virus, which is the minds of many a classical co-infection, has been show to act directly on the body's nuclear receptors including the VDR.3) A 2011 paper further showed that EBV not only down-regulates expression of the VDR protein itself, but also acts to block transcription by the VDR.4)

Marshall Protocol targets "co-infections"

I used to think that herpes erupted when immunity was down but I have now witnessed too many shingles outbreaks in Marshall Protocol patients as they recovered. Called IRIS or Immune Recovery Inflammatory Syndrome, this is also seen in AIDS patients as their immunity recovers.

Greg Blaney, M.D.

Using the VDR agonistA substance such as olmesartan (Benicar) or 1,25-D which activates the Vitamin D Receptor and transcribes the genes necessary for a proper innate immune response., olmesartan, the MP activates the innate immune response. The innate immune response is effective against a range of microbes including “co-infections.” One important component of the innate immune response is the antimicrobial peptides.

The antimicrobial peptides play a role in mitigating the virulence of the virome and other non-bacterial infectious agents. In addition to its antibacterial activity, alpha-defensin human neutrophil peptide-1 inhibits HIV and influenza virus entry into target cells.5) It diminishes HIV replication and can inactivate cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and adenovirus.6) In addition to killing both gram positive and gram-negative bacteria, human beta-defensins HBD-1, HDB-2, and HBD-3 have also been shown to kill the opportunistic yeast species Candida albicans.7) Cathelicidin also possesses antiviral and antifungal activity.8) 9)

In other words, there is a reason why this group of proteins are named antimicrobial peptides rather than antibacterial peptides.

Some evidence has emerged that using a therapy to target a given infection aids the body in its ability to eliminate otherwise unrelated pathogens. For example, a 2011 Science study gave two groups of mice an injection of poliovirus, a gut virus. One group was treated with antibiotics, thus depleting their intestinal microbiome. This group was less susceptible to poliovirus disease and supported minimal viral replication in the intestine. Further, the pathogenesis of reovirus, an unrelated gut virus, was also more severe in the presence of intestinal microbes.10)

Notes and comments

Diflucan disallowed

References

3)
Expression profile of nuclear receptors upon Epstein -- Barr virus induced B cell transformation.
Yenamandra SP, Lundin A, Arulampalam V, Yurchenko M, Pettersson S, Klein G, Kashuba E
Exp Oncol31p92-6(2009 Jun)
4)
Epstein-Barr virus encoded EBNA-3 binds to vitamin D receptor and blocks activation of its target genes.
Yenamandra SP, Hellman U, Kempkes B, Darekar SD, Petermann S, Sculley T, Klein G, Kashuba E
Cell Mol Life Sci67p4249-56(2010 Dec)
5) , 7)
Antifungal activities of human beta-defensins HBD-1 to HBD-3 and their C-terminal analogs Phd1 to Phd3.
Krishnakumari V, Rangaraj N, Nagaraj R
Antimicrob Agents Chemother53p256-60(2009 Jan)
8)
Cathelicidin deficiency predisposes to eczema herpeticum.
Howell MD, Wollenberg A, Gallo RL, Flaig M, Streib JE, Wong C, Pavicic T, Boguniewicz M, Leung DY
J Allergy Clin Immunol117p836-41(2006 Apr)
9)
Fungicidal activity of five cathelicidin peptides against clinically isolated yeasts.
Benincasa M, Scocchi M, Pacor S, Tossi A, Nobili D, Basaglia G, Busetti M, Gennaro R
J Antimicrob Chemother58p950-9(2006 Nov)
home/diseases/co-infections.txt · Last modified: 01.03.2012 (external edit)
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