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Learning difficulties (ADHD, ADD, dyslexia)

from Wikipedia

Humans learn before birth and continue until death as a consequence of ongoing interactions between people and their environment. The nature and processes involved in learning are studied in many fields, including educational psychology, neuropsychology, experimental psychology, and pedagogy.

Research in such fields has led to the identification of various sorts of learning. For example, learning may occur as a result of habituation, or classical conditioning, operant conditioning or as a result of more complex activities such as play, seen only in relatively intelligent animals.

Learning may occur consciously or without conscious awareness. Learning that an aversive event can't be avoided nor escaped may result in a condition called learned helplessness.

There is evidence for human behavioral learning prenatally, in which habituation has been observed as early as 32 weeks into gestation, indicating that the central nervous system is sufficiently developed and primed for learning and memory to occur very early on in development.

Dyslexia

Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a specific and persistent disability affecting the acquisition of written language. Prevalence is estimated to be between 5% and 17% of school-aged children; it therefore represents a major public health issue. 1)

Reading disorders and dyslexia. 2)

There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills.

Developmental dyslexia 3)

At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading/language networks. The neurocognitive influences on dyslexia are also multifactorial and involve phonological processing deficits as well as weaknesses in other oral language skills and processing speed.

We address contextual issues such as how dyslexia manifests across languages and social classes as well as what treatments are best supported.

Perceptive difficulties

It is advisable to have children assessed occasionally for visual and hearing status. A child's hearing difficulty, if not picked up, can have a disproportionate effect on their life prospects.

ADHD research

Shortened Sleep Duration Causes Sleepiness, Inattention, and Oppositionality in Adolescents With ADHD: Findings From a Crossover Sleep Restriction/Extension Study. 4)

This study provides the first evidence that sleep duration is a causal contributor to daytime behaviors in adolescents with ADHD. Sleep may be an important target for intervention in adolescents with ADHD.

The myeloarchitecture of impulsivity: premature responding in youth is associated with decreased myelination of ventral putamen. 5)

Impulsivity has been suggested as a neurocognitive endophenotype conferring risk across a number of neuropsychiatric conditions, including substance and behavioural addictions, eating disorders, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Latent ERP components of cognitive dysfunctions in ADHD and schizophrenia. 6)

Sex Differences in Comorbidity Patterns of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. 7)

This study indicates that the association between ADHD and several comorbid disorders is stronger in females than in males.

Clinical developmental, neuropsychological, and social-emotional features of Turner syndrome. 8)

TS is associated with an increased risk for difficulties with visual-spatial reasoning, visual-spatial memory, attention, executive functioning, motor, and math skills. Additionally, increased rates of social difficulties, anxiety, and depression are observed.

Towards a fuller assessment of benefits to children's health of reducing air pollution and mitigating climate change due to fossil fuel combustion. 9)

Various policies to reduce emissions have been implemented to reduce air pollution and mitigate climate change, with sizeable estimated health and economic benefits. However, only a few adverse outcomes in children have been considered, resulting in an undercounting of the benefits to this vulnerable population.

Patient interviews

Doreen V. (patient's mother)

autism, ADHD, depression, severe anxiety, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)

Read the interview

Ival Meyer

rheumatoid arthritis, dyslexia

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Interviews of patients with other diseases are also available.

References

1)
Dyslexia.
Habib M, Giraud K
Handb Clin Neurol111p229-35(2013)
2)
Reading disorders and dyslexia.
Hulme C, Snowling MJ
Curr Opin Pediatr28p731-735(2016 Dec)
3)
Developmental dyslexia.
Peterson RL, Pennington BF
Annu Rev Clin Psychol11p283-307(2015)
4)
Shortened Sleep Duration Causes Sleepiness, Inattention, and Oppositionality in Adolescents With ADHD: Findings From a Crossover Sleep Restriction/Extension Study.
Becker SP, Epstein JN, Tamm L, Tilford AA, Tischner CM, Isaacson PA, Simon JO, Beebe DW
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatryp(2018 Nov 1)
5)
The myeloarchitecture of impulsivity: premature responding in youth is associated with decreased myelination of ventral putamen.
Nord CL, Kim SG, Callesen MB, Kvamme TL, Jensen M, Pedersen MU, Thomsen KR, Voon V
Neuropsychopharmacologyp(2019 Feb 15)
6)
Latent ERP components of cognitive dysfunctions in ADHD and schizophrenia.
Kropotov JD, Pronina MV, Ponomarev VA, Poliakov YI, Plotnikova IV, Mueller A
Clin Neurophysiol130p445-453(2019 Feb 10)
7)
Sex Differences in Comorbidity Patterns of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
Ottosen C, Larsen JT, Faraone SV, Chen Q, Hartman C, Larsson H, Petersen L, Dalsgaard S
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatryp(2019 Jan 8)
8)


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home/diseases/learning.txt · Last modified: 02.21.2019 by sallieq
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