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home:pathogenesis:microbiota:interaction [10.27.2018]
sallieq [Bacteria affect human genes and gene expression]
home:pathogenesis:microbiota:interaction [05.24.2020] (current)
sallieq [Coronavirus]
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-====== Effects of bacteria on their human host ======+====== Effects of bacteria and viruses on their human host ====== 
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 +<relatedarticles> [[home:pathogenesis:microbiota:acute_infections|Acute infections]], [[https://mpkb.org/home/diseases/acute_respiratory|Acute respiratory infections]] </article>
  
  
 The genomes and the respective proteomes of microbes in the body frequently interact with those expressed by their human hosts. This is a key part of what is know as the interactome. The "massive"(({{pubmed>long:18582510}})) co-occurrence of protein-coding genes between microbes and humans speaks to the survival advantage of such homology, and the extent to which sequence overlap may play a key role in disease. Indeed, manipulation of host cell fate and orchestrated choreography of inflammatory responses are recurrent themes in the strategies of microbial pathogens.((Relman D.A. and Falkow S. (2010). A molecular perspective of microbial pathogenecity. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. G. L. Mandell, J. E. Bennett and R. Dolin. Philadelphia, PA, Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. 7.)) Bacteria affect host-cell pathways and human gene expression through a number of increasingly well-documented ways. The genomes and the respective proteomes of microbes in the body frequently interact with those expressed by their human hosts. This is a key part of what is know as the interactome. The "massive"(({{pubmed>long:18582510}})) co-occurrence of protein-coding genes between microbes and humans speaks to the survival advantage of such homology, and the extent to which sequence overlap may play a key role in disease. Indeed, manipulation of host cell fate and orchestrated choreography of inflammatory responses are recurrent themes in the strategies of microbial pathogens.((Relman D.A. and Falkow S. (2010). A molecular perspective of microbial pathogenecity. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. G. L. Mandell, J. E. Bennett and R. Dolin. Philadelphia, PA, Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. 7.)) Bacteria affect host-cell pathways and human gene expression through a number of increasingly well-documented ways.
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 ==== Viruses ==== ==== Viruses ====
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 In a 2007 analysis of sequence similarity between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and humans Kusalik //et al.// found that pentamers from HCV polyprotein have a widespread and high level of similarity to a large number of human proteins (19,605 human proteins, that is 57.6% of the human proteome).(({{pubmed>long:17485143}})) Indeed, only a limited number of HCV pentameric fragments have no similarity to the human host. A 2011 study by the same author revised that figure: using once more pentapeptide matching, only 214 motifs – a short sequence pattern of nucleotides in a DNA sequence or amino acids in a protein – out of a total of 3,007 (7.11%) identified HCV as nonself compared to the //Homo sapiens// proteome.(({{pubmed>long:22299062}}))  In a 2007 analysis of sequence similarity between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and humans Kusalik //et al.// found that pentamers from HCV polyprotein have a widespread and high level of similarity to a large number of human proteins (19,605 human proteins, that is 57.6% of the human proteome).(({{pubmed>long:17485143}})) Indeed, only a limited number of HCV pentameric fragments have no similarity to the human host. A 2011 study by the same author revised that figure: using once more pentapeptide matching, only 214 motifs – a short sequence pattern of nucleotides in a DNA sequence or amino acids in a protein – out of a total of 3,007 (7.11%) identified HCV as nonself compared to the //Homo sapiens// proteome.(({{pubmed>long:22299062}})) 
  
 A 2008 study examined thirty viral proteomes were examined for amino acid sequence similarity to the human proteome (as well as a control of 30 sets of human proteins).(({{pubmed>long:18582510}})) Researchers found that all of the analyzed 30 viral proteomes including human T-lymphotropic virus 1, and Rubella virus had substantial overlap with the human proteome. A 2008 study examined thirty viral proteomes were examined for amino acid sequence similarity to the human proteome (as well as a control of 30 sets of human proteins).(({{pubmed>long:18582510}})) Researchers found that all of the analyzed 30 viral proteomes including human T-lymphotropic virus 1, and Rubella virus had substantial overlap with the human proteome.
 +
 +==== Coronavirus ====
 +
 +
 +Several teams researching coronavirus [[https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/coronaviruses|What's the problem?]]
 +
 +[[https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-00660-x?utm_source=Nature+Briefing&utm_campaign=9dd44b4364-briefing-dy-20200309&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_c9dfd39373-9dd44b4364-43480017|Why does the coronavirus spread so easily between people?]]
 +
 +How does social distancing work? [[https://1v1d1e1lmiki1lgcvx32p49h8fe-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/the-spinoff-toby-morris-siouxsie-wiles-design-graphics-illustration-coronavirus_dezeen_1704_col_1.gif|picture this]]
 +
 +[[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1vZDVbqRhyM|discussion of coronavirus and ACE inhibitors]]
 +
 +[[https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30183-5/fulltext|Clinical features of Covid-19 reported from Wuhan Feb2020]]
 +
 +[[https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30132-8/fulltext|3 Antiviral and anti-inflammatory treatments compared]]
 +
 +[[http://www.koreabiomed.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=7428|Treatment guidelines for coronavirus (Korea 2020)]]
 +
 +[[http://www.koreabiomed.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=7718|Fewer new cases 20/3/2020 (Korea) ]]
 +
 +current evidence(({{pubmed>long:    32096567}}))
 +
 +chloroquine (({{pubmed>long:    32147496}}))
 +
 +neuroinvasive potential(({{pubmed>long:    32104915}}))
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 +Unique epidemiological and clinical features(({{pubmed>long:    32134116}}))
 +
 +Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission(({{pubmed>long:    32083643}}))
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 +Discovering drugs(({{pubmed>long:    32147628}}))
 +
 +breakthrough(({{pubmed>long:    32074550}}))
 +
 +What we know so far(({{pubmed>long:    32139372}}))
 +
 +It seems [[https://chemrxiv.org/articles/COVID-19_Disease_ORF8_and_Surface_Glycoprotein_Inhibit_Heme_Metabolism_by_Binding_to_Porphyrin/11938173|virus attacks the HEME of red blood cells, destroying their ability to absorb oxygen and carbon dioxide]] //so that gently applied// supplementary pure oxygen will be an important part of treatment.
 +
 +[[https://www.mediterranee-infection.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Hydroxychloroquine_final_DOI_IJAA.pdf|small sample size survey shows hydroxychloroquine treatment is significantly associated with viral load reduction in COVID-19 patients, effect is reinforced by azithromycin.]]
 +
 +February 2020 The multicenter collaboration group of Department of Science and Technology of Guangdong Province and Health Commission of Guangdong Province for chloroquine in the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia developed this expert consensus after extensive discussion. It recommended chloroquine phosphate tablet, 500mg twice per day for 10 days for patients diagnosed as mild, moderate and severe cases of novel coronavirus pneumonia and without contraindications to chloroquine. (({{pubmed>long:32075365}})) 
 +
 +**May 2020** Results of extensive study of [[https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)31180-6/fulltext|hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine]] indicate harm rather than help from use of these drugs in coronavirus cases.
 +
 +96 032 patients (mean age 53·8 years, 46·3% women) with COVID-19 were hospitalised during the study period and met the inclusion criteria. 
 +
 +Data from 671 hospitals in six continents  included patients hospitalised between Dec 20, 2019, and April 14, 2020, with a positive laboratory finding for SARS-CoV-2. 
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 +Patients who received one of the treatments of interest within 48 h of diagnosis were included in one of four treatment groups (chloroquine alone, chloroquine with a macrolide, hydroxychloroquine alone, or hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide), and patients who received none of these treatments formed the control group. Patients for whom one of the treatments of interest was initiated more than 48 h after diagnosis or while they were on mechanical ventilation, as well as patients who received remdesivir, were excluded. 
 +
 +After controlling for multiple confounding factors (age, sex, race or ethnicity, body-mass index, underlying cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, diabetes, underlying lung disease, smoking, immunosuppressed condition, and baseline disease severity), 
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 +The main outcomes of interest were in-hospital mortality and the occurrence of de-novo ventricular arrhythmias (non-sustained or sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation). 
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 +Compared with the control group (0·3%), hydroxychloroquine (6·1%; 2·369, 1·935–2·900), hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide (8·1%; 5·106, 4·106–5·983), chloroquine (4·3%; 3·561, 2·760–4·596), and chloroquine with a macrolide (6·5%; 4·011, 3·344–4·812) were independently associated with an increased risk of de-novo ventricular arrhythmia during hospitalisation. 
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 +
 +When compared with mortality in the control group (9·3%), hydroxychloroquine (18·0%; hazard ratio 1·335, 95% CI 1·223–1·457), hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide (23·8%; 1·447, 1·368–1·531), chloroquine (16·4%; 1·365, 1·218–1·531), and chloroquine with a macrolide (22·2%; 1·368, 1·273–1·469) were each independently associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. 
 +
 +
 +[[https://www.jbc.org/content/early/2020/04/13/jbc.RA120.013679.abstract|Remdesivir believed to inhibit RNA synthesis in virus and coronavirus]]
 +
 +[[https://www.mediterranee-infection.com/azithromycin-and-ciprofloxacin-have-a-chloroquine-like-effect-on-respiratory-epithelial-cells/|Azithromycin and ciprofloxacin have a chloroquine-like effect on respiratory epithelial cells]]
 +
 +Drug used for Ebola is being tested on 600 participants in a study started March 15, 2020 and expected to complete in May 2020 [[https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04292730|Treatment study]]
 +
 + 
 +[[https://www.monash.edu/discovery-institute/news-and-events/news/2020-articles/Lab-experiments-show-anti-parasitic-drug,-Ivermectin,-eliminates-SARS-CoV-2-in-cells-in-48-hours
 +|Laboratory experiment shows Ivermectin can kill the virus within 48 hours in cell culture]]   (({{pubmed>long:32251768}}))  
 +
 +
 +[[https://www.monash.edu/discovery-institute/news-and-events/news/2020-articles/Lab-experiments-show-anti-parasitic-drug,-Ivermectin,-eliminates-SARS-CoV-2-in-cells-in-48-hours|48-hours to eliminate SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture]] "The next steps are to determine the correct human dosage – ensuring the doses shown to effectively treat the virus in vitro are safe for humans."
 +
 +[[https://www.drugs.com/pro/stromectol.html|Ivermectin studied in humans]]
 +
 +[[https://www.wionews.com/south-asia/bangladesh-doctors-claim-to-have-found-effective-drug-combination-to-cure-covid-19-patients-299247|Bangladeshi doctors report curing Coronavirus by a single dose of a frequently used antiprotozoal medicine called Ivermectin, in combination with Doxycycline, an antibiotic. ]] 
 +
 +[[https://www.newsmax.com/us/ivermectin-drug-virus/2020/05/22/id/968688/|drug already approved by the FDA to treat parasitic infections is showing “astounding” results]]
 +
 +Physicians who participated in the study report that patients’ viral loads began declining almost immediately after they began administering ivermectin, a widely available prescription drug approved to combat parasites, scabies and head lice.
 +
 +[[https://www.uu.nl/en/news/researchers-report-discovery-of-antibody-that-blocks-infection-by-the-novel-coronavirus-sars-cov-2|A fully human monoclonal antibody that prevents the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus from infecting cultured cells is identified by research at Erasmus Medical Center and Harbour BioMed, Utrecht Univ.  ]]
 +
 +
 +<relatedarticle> [[home:starting:usingforum:home_help_using_forums:a_a_href#new_information|5 key elements of MP#new information]] </article>
 +
  
 ==== Bacteria ==== ==== Bacteria ====
home/pathogenesis/microbiota/interaction.1540600414.txt.gz · Last modified: 10.27.2018 by sallieq
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