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home:special:smoking [11.12.2011]
paulalbert [Smoking and prolonged stress decrease production of antimicrobial peptides]
home:special:smoking [01.03.2012]
127.0.0.1 external edit
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 Smoking has been called "the single most preventable risk of disease"​ but the underlying disease process by which smoking is said to cause death and disease is not well-defined. However, there are several areas of study which point to the role of pathogens and modulation of the immune response in the diseases caused by smoking: Smoking has been called "the single most preventable risk of disease"​ but the underlying disease process by which smoking is said to cause death and disease is not well-defined. However, there are several areas of study which point to the role of pathogens and modulation of the immune response in the diseases caused by smoking:
   * Pathogens have been detected in cigarettes.(({{pubmed>​long:​20064769}})) ​   * Pathogens have been detected in cigarettes.(({{pubmed>​long:​20064769}})) ​
-  * Smoking has been shown to  decrease production of antimicrobial peptides. Some evidence has emerged that smoking offers sick people symptomatic relief – through immunosuppression,​(({{pubmed>​long:​9610683}})) an anti-inflammatory effect,​(({{pubmed>​long:​12033743}})) or any number of other possible mechanisms. ​+  * Smoking has been shown to contribute to delayed apoptosis of immune cells as well as decrease production of antimicrobial peptides. Some evidence has emerged that smoking offers sick people symptomatic relief – through immunosuppression,​(({{pubmed>​long:​9610683}})) an anti-inflammatory effect,​(({{pubmed>​long:​12033743}})) or any number of other possible mechanisms. ​
   * Sick people are less likely to quit smoking, which may artificially inflate estimate of the harmful effect of tobacco. For example, schizophrenic patients, have reported that they smoked "​primarily for sedative effects and control of negative symptoms of schizophrenia."​(({{pubmed>​long:​12132630}})) Symptomatic relief may also explain why people with mental illness are twice as likely to smoke than people without a mental illness.(({{pubmed>​long:​12132630}}))   * Sick people are less likely to quit smoking, which may artificially inflate estimate of the harmful effect of tobacco. For example, schizophrenic patients, have reported that they smoked "​primarily for sedative effects and control of negative symptoms of schizophrenia."​(({{pubmed>​long:​12132630}})) Symptomatic relief may also explain why people with mental illness are twice as likely to smoke than people without a mental illness.(({{pubmed>​long:​12132630}}))
  
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 Compounds in cigarettes have been said to be carcinogenic. As discussed in [[home:​publications:​proal_autoimmunity_2010|Amy Proal'​s presentation at the 2010 International Congress on Autoimmunity]],​ Sapkota //et al.// identified fifteen different classes of bacteria and a broad range of pathogenic organisms in five commonly smoked cigarettes tested.(({{pubmed>​long:​20064769}})) That said, the underlying disease process by which smoking is said to cause death is not well-defined. Compounds in cigarettes have been said to be carcinogenic. As discussed in [[home:​publications:​proal_autoimmunity_2010|Amy Proal'​s presentation at the 2010 International Congress on Autoimmunity]],​ Sapkota //et al.// identified fifteen different classes of bacteria and a broad range of pathogenic organisms in five commonly smoked cigarettes tested.(({{pubmed>​long:​20064769}})) That said, the underlying disease process by which smoking is said to cause death is not well-defined.
-===== Smoking and prolonged stress decrease production of antimicrobial peptides ===== 
  
-Smoking and prolonged stress have been linked to increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. A 2010 study appearing in //Cell Host and Microbe// shows that this may be caused by a decrease in antimicrobial peptide (AmP) activity as a result of increased stimulation of a neuroendocrine signalling pathway.(({{pubmed>​long:​20413096}})) Radek //et al.// showed that when nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) were stimulated, mice had decreased AmP production and were increasingly susceptible to the pathogens methicillin-resistant //​Staphylococcus aureus// and Group A //​Streptococcus//​ infections. 
  
  
-===== Nicotine interferes with apoptosis ​=====+===== Smoking is immunosuppressive ​===== 
 + 
 +  * **Smoking and prolonged stress decrease production of antimicrobial peptides** – Smoking and prolonged stress have been linked to increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. A 2010 study appearing in //Cell Host and Microbe// shows that this may be caused by a decrease in antimicrobial peptide (AmP) activity as a result of increased stimulation of a neuroendocrine signalling pathway.(({{pubmed>​long:​20413096}})) Radek //et al.// showed that when nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) were stimulated, mice had decreased AmP production and were increasingly susceptible to the pathogens methicillin-resistant //​Staphylococcus aureus// and Group A //​Streptococcus//​ infections. 
 +  * **Nicotine interferes with apoptosis** – According to a 2007 review, nicotine acts on immune cells. Although nicotine itself is usually not referred to as a carcinogen, there is ongoing debate whether nicotine functions as a "tumor enhancer."​ By binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, nicotine deregulates essential biological processes like angiogenesis,​ apoptosis, and cell-mediated immunity.(({{pubmed>​long:​17846896}})) Delayed apoptosis – that is, the inability of cells to self-destruct – is one of the hallmarks of chronic inflammatory disease. It is well-documented that microbes induce delayed apoptosis in order to gain a survival advantage. 
 + 
  
-According to a 2007 review, nicotine acts on immune cells. Although nicotine itself is usually not referred to as a carcinogen, there is ongoing debate whether nicotine functions as a "tumor enhancer."​ By binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, nicotine deregulates essential biological processes like angiogenesis,​ apoptosis, and cell-mediated immunity.(({{pubmed>​long:​17846896}})) Delayed apoptosis – that is, the inability of cells to self-destruct – is one of the hallmarks of chronic inflammatory disease. It is well-documented that microbes induce delayed apoptosis in order to gain a survival advantage. 
  
  
home/special/smoking.txt · Last modified: 10.26.2018 by sallieq
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