Fish oil and omega 3 fatty acids

Because omega 3 essential fatty acids have been shown to contain components that slow immune activity, Marshall Protocol (MP) patients should avoid consuming them.

Oils that contain omega 3 essential fatty acids

  • cod liver oil
  • fish oil
  • flax seed oil

Oils may contain vitamin D

All supplemental oils may contain vitamin D, the consumption of which is contraindicated for MP patients.

One of the sarcoidosis patients wrote to the manufacturer and was told that Primrose Oil has a significant quantity of Vitamin D in it. An excessive quantity, in fact. Enough to disable the immune system from killing the L-form bacteriaDifficult-to-culture bacteria that lack a cell wall and are not detectable by traditional culturing processes. Sometimes referred to as cell wall deficient bacteria..

In my opinion, you don't need essential fatty acids. You need to throw off your Th1 diseaseAny of the chronic inflammatory diseases caused by bacterial pathogens.. When you are healthy again you will not be interested in (or need) any of these supplements.

Trevor Marshall, PhD

Omega 3 fatty acids interfere with immune signaling pathways

Greater consumption of omega 3's has been shown to reduce inflammation and immune activity.1)

Arachidonic acid (AA) significantly decreased TNFalpha production…. The results show that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induces a Th-1-like immune response and that AA has anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing the production of TNFalpha. Thus, the immune effects of omega3 polysaturated fatty acids are not compatible with what is expected from antidepressive substances. The results of the present study show that treatment with fish oils, containing DHA, should be avoided in the treatment of depression. Toward this end, highly concentrated and pure EPA seems to be indicated.

M. Maes et al 2)

  • EPA and DHA were shown in a controlled trial to reduce immune activity. EPA and DHA are present in fish oil in significant quantities.

A high eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake changed the expression of 1,040 genes…. EPA+DHA intake resulted in a decreased expression of genes involved in inflammatory- and atherogenic-related pathways, such as nuclear transcription factor kappaB signaling, eicosanoid synthesis, scavenger receptor activity, adipogenesis, and hypoxia signaling.

M. Bouwens 3)

  • Fish oil-fed mice have impaired resistance to influenza infection.

Although fish oil-fed mice had lower lung inflammation compared with controls, fish oil feeding also resulted in a 40% higher mortality rate, a 70% higher lung viral load at d 7 post infection, and a prolonged recovery period following infection…. Additionally, lungs of infected fish oil-fed mice had significantly fewer CD8+ T cells and decreased mRNA expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-1-alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alphaA cytokine critical for effective immune surveillance and is required for proper proliferation and function of immune cells., and interleukin-6. These results suggest that the antiinflammatory properties of fish oil feeding can alter the immune response to influenza infection, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality.

Schwerbrock et al.5)

Omega 3 fatty acids may cause disease

  • Mice given omega‐3's are more susceptible to pulmonary tuberculosis – Bonilla et al. showed that transgenic mice engineered to produce omega-3's endogenously (internally) increased their susceptibility to tuberculosis, which they explained by noting the corresponding reduction in antimycobacterial responses in cells. The researchers concluded, “These data suggest that n‐3 PUFA–supplemented [dietary omega‐3 fatty acids] diets might have a detrimental effect on immunity to M. tuberculosis and raise concerns regarding the safety of omega‐3 dietary supplementation in humans.”6)

===== Notes and comments =====

Are there any new references here?
Posted by Lottis 9/4/09…
Magnus Lindskog, med dr, Dept. of clinical pharmacology, Uppsala universitet, has written an article in the Swedish medical journal this week.

He asks his colleges to advise for caution about supplementing with Omega-3, while patients having the swine flu.

It has been shown that it is down regulating the immune system function in dealing with viral pathogens. https://www.lakartidningen.se/07engine.php?articleId=12663

Here are the sources;
1. Byleveld PM, et al. J Nutr. 1999;129:328-35.
2. Byleveld M, et al. Clin Exp Immunol. 2000;119:287-92.
3. Kelley DS, et al. Lipids. 1999;34:317-24.
4. Alperovich M, et al. Nutrition. 2007;23:196-202.
5. Schwerbrock NM, et al. J Nutr. 2009;139(8):1588-94.

Omega-3 linked to aggressive prostate cancer By Laura Dean 05 May 2011 Am J Epidemiol 2011; Advance online publication MedWire News: High levels of omega 3 (n-3) fatty acids, which are considered beneficial for coronary artery disease prevention, may increase the risk for high-grade prostate cancer, US research shows.

In contrast, trans-fatty acids (TFAs), abundant in processed foods that contain partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and considered harmful, may reduce high-grade prostate cancer risk, report Theodore Brasky (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington) and colleagues.

“We were stunned to see these results and we spent a lot of time making sure the analyses were correct,” said Brasky. “Our findings turn what we know - or rather what we think we know - about diet, inflammation and the development of prostate cancer on its head and shine a light on the complexity of studying the association between nutrition and the risk of various chronic diseases.”

Brasky and team examined the association between inflammation-related phospholipid fatty acids (n-3, n-6, and TFAs) and prostate cancer risk because chronic inflammation is known to increase the risk of several cancers, and n-3 fatty acids, found primarily in fish and fish oil supplements, have anti-inflammatory effects.

They conducted a case-control analysis of 3461 men (1658 cases and 1803 controls) aged 55-84 years, who participated in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial between 1994 and 2003.

As reported in the American Journal of Epidemiology, men with the highest levels of the n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (>3.30% of total fatty acid) had a 2.5-fold greater risk for high-grade prostate cancer (Gleason scores 8-10) than those with the lowest levels (<2.26% of total fatty acid).

In contrast, men with the highest levels of TFA 18:1 (>2.08% of total fatty acid) and TFA 18:2 (>0.26% of fatty acid) had a respective 45% and 52% lower risk for cancer than those with the lowest levels (<1.29% and <0.18% of total fatty acid, respectively).

Of note, no other fatty acids were associated with high-grade prostate cancer risk, and none were associated with low-grade prostate cancer risk (Gleason scores 2-7).

In spite of the findings, the researchers do not recommend that men should stop taking fish oil supplements or eating oily fish. “Overall, the beneficial effects of eating fish to prevent heart disease outweigh any harm related to prostate cancer risk,” Brasky said.

“A comprehensive understanding of the effects of nutrients on a broad range of diseases will be necessary before making recommendations for dietary changes or use of individual dietary supplements for disease prevention,” the team concludes.

===== References =====

Weaver KL, Ivester P, Seeds M, Case LD, Arm JP, Chilton FH. Effect of dietary fatty acids on inflammatory gene expression in healthy humans. J Biol Chem. 2009 Jun 5;284(23):15400-7. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.004861. Epub 2009 Apr 9.
[PMID: 19359242] [PMCID: 2708836] [DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M109.004861]
Maes M, Mihaylova I, Kubera M, Bosmans E. Why fish oils may not always be adequate treatments for depression or other inflammatory illnesses: docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, induces a Th-1-like immune response. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2007 Dec;28(6):875-80.
[PMID: 18063921]
Bouwens M, van de Rest O, Dellschaft N, Bromhaar MG, de Groot LCPGM, Geleijnse JM, Müller M, Afman LA. Fish-oil supplementation induces antiinflammatory gene expression profiles in human blood mononuclear cells. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Aug;90(2):415-24. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.27680. Epub 2009 Jun 10.
[PMID: 19515734] [DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.27680]
Oh DY, Talukdar S, Bae EJ, Imamura T, Morinaga H, Fan W, Li P, Lu WJ, Watkins SM, Olefsky JM. GPR120 is an omega-3 fatty acid receptor mediating potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects. Cell. 2010 Sep 3;142(5):687-98. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.07.041.
[PMID: 20813258] [PMCID: 2956412] [DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.07.041]
Schwerbrock NMJ, Karlsson EA, Shi Q, Sheridan PA, Beck MA. Fish oil-fed mice have impaired resistance to influenza infection. J Nutr. 2009 Aug;139(8):1588-94. doi: 10.3945/jn.109.108027. Epub 2009 Jun 23.
[PMID: 19549756] [PMCID: 2709305] [DOI: 10.3945/jn.109.108027]
Bonilla DL, Fan Y, Chapkin RS, McMurray DN. Transgenic mice enriched in omega-3 fatty acids are more susceptible to pulmonary tuberculosis: impaired resistance to tuberculosis in fat-1 mice. J Infect Dis. 2010 Feb 1;201(3):399-408. doi: 10.1086/650344.
[PMID: 20053136] [PMCID: 4421876] [DOI: 10.1086/650344]
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